There are many differences between AC and DC motors. The most obvious difference is the type of current each motor turns into energy, alternating current in the case of AC motors, and direct current in the case of DC motors. AC motors are known for their increased power output and efficiency, while DC motors are prized for their speed control and output range. AC motors are available in single- or three-phase configurations, while DC motors are always single-phase.
More About AC Motors
In an AC motor, energy comes from magnetic fields generated through coils wrapped around the output shaft. AC motors consist of several parts, including a stator and rotor. AC motors are efficient, durable, quiet and flexible, making them a viable solution for many power generation needs.
The two types of AC motors include:
- Synchronous: The synchronous motor rotates at the same rate as the frequency of the supply current, a fact that gives the motor its name. Synchronous motors are constructed of a stator, rotor and Synchronous motors are used in a wide range of applications.
- Induction: Induction motors are the simplest and most rugged electric motor available. These AC electric motors consist of two electrical assemblies: the wound stator and the rotor assembly. The electric current needed to turn the rotor is created by electromagnetic induction created by the stator winding. Induction motors are among the most commonly used type of motor in the world.
More About DC Motors
The energy used by a DC motor comes from batteries or another generated power source that offers constant voltage. DC motors are made up of several parts, the most notable of which include bearings, shafts and a gearbox or gears. DC motors offer better speed variation and control and produce more torque than AC motors.
The two types of DC motors include:
- Brushed: One of the oldest types of motor, brushed motors are internally commutated electric motors powered by direct current. Brushed motors are constructed of a rotor, brushes, an axle and The charge and polarity of the brushes control the direction and speed of the motor.
- Brushless: In recent years, brushless motors have gained in popularity for many uses, largely due to their efficiency. Brushless motors are constructed in the same fashion as brushed motors, minus, of course, the brushes. Brushless motors also include specialized circuitry to control speed and direction. In brushless motors, magnets are mounted around the rotor, a configuration that improves efficiency.
DC motors are used in a wide range of applications, including electric wheelchairs, handheld sprayers and pumps, coffee machines, off-road equipment and many more.